World Congress for Middle Eastern Studies

Barcelona, July 19th - 24th 2010

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Cultural heritage, legislation and management (208) - Panel
 

· Date: WED 21, 11.30 am-1.30 pm

· Language: English, Français

· Description:
Chair: Tigin Töre (Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University)

Paper presenter: Chedouki Jihane (Doctorante, CECOJI, Universite de Poitiers), «Protection Juridique du Patrimoine Historique Egyptien et Politique Patrimoniale: Le Cas de Louxor»
La notion du patrimoine est présente dans de nombreuses branches du droit: en droit public, en droit privé, en droit de l’environnement, en droit de l’urbanisme, en droit international public et privé, etc. Dans la branche du droit qui nous intéresse ici, à savoir le droit public appliqué à la culture, il n’existe pas de patrimoine par nature. Il n’est de patrimoine que par décision de l’autorité administrative. Autrement dit, la patrimonialisation d’un bien exige une sélection par voie de décision unilatérale. En effet, la protection du patrimoine n’est qu’un des aspects de la politique culturelle. Les différences d’orientation sont perceptibles selon les besoins du moment, l’évolution des conceptions de la protection et la perception de ses enjeux par les décideurs. En Égypte, le bien meuble ou immeuble est considéré comme antiquité lorsqu’il présente pour l’État un intérêt national, sans qu’il soit tenu compte des limites de temps) (article 2 de la loi 117 de 1983 relative à la protection des antiquités égyptiennes). Pour ce, l’État doit disposer des outils de protection et de mise en valeur efficaces pour bien protéger ses richesses patrimoniales. Outre la procédure de classement et ses effets juridiques directs sur les monuments, les documents d’urbanisme sont considérés comme des instruments de protection indirects, qui permettent à l’État de fixer les perspectives de développement, de préservation et de mise en valeur des sites historiques. Ainsi dans cette communication je propose d’illustrer cela à partir de l’exemple des monuments historique de la ville de Louxor et les politiques patrimoniales menées par le Conseil Suprême de Louxor en tant qu’autorité locale. En effet, le nouveau « Master Plan Louqsor 2030 » vise un réaménagement total de la ville qui rassemble les deux tiers des Antiquités du pays, en vue d’une meilleure exploitation touristique. Dans ce cadre, des opérations d’expropriation des terrains (l’exemple du village Al Qurna) ainsi que des démolitions de quartiers historiques appartenant au patrimoine datant des 19e et 20e siècles ont été menées ou en cours d’exécution, au nom de la mise en valeur du patrimoine pharaonique (les temples de Thèbes). L’intérêt de ce cas d’étude est l’observation de la mise en œuvre des lois et règlements relatifs à la protection du patrimoine et leur articulation avec les projets d’urbanisme et du développement touristique. En effet, il est intéressant d’examiner les documents de planification en tant qu’outil d’identification et de délimitation des sites à protéger. Cela me permettra d’évaluer concrètement la portée des instruments de protection et de mise en valeur des monuments historiques ainsi que d’identifier les acteurs publics et/ ou privés dans le processus de patrimonialisation.

Paper presenter:Abdelkader Ababneh (PhD Student, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis), “Heritage management planning, stakeholders and legal problematic; the case of the archaeological site of Jarash in Jordan”
Heritage management planning is increasingly important throughout the international context, particularly in the countries in process of development. Jordan has important and unique heritage resources due to its natural topography and climate, but also to its history and old sites. A high number of these archaeological sites are in very good state of preservation. Most natural sites and resources are privately managed; archaeological heritage sites are publicly managed within national legal texts and with some referencing to international legal documents. The purpose of this paper is to define and review of the stakeholders in charge of the management of the archaeological site of Jarash, the legal texts, laws and documents adopted to apply the site management. Relations and coordination between stakeholders and the challenge of the planning process is also the focus of this paper. A review of pertinent academic, technical studies, reports and projects literature pertaining to the heritage management planning in general and related to the site of Jarash in particular coupled with field study of the site served as the background of the information base for the study. Current context of actors, legislative framework, planning policies and initiatives for the site of Jarash reveal important and continuous challenge for managing the site. Recommendations suggest reviewing and restructuring the entity responsible of the sites management. It is also recommended to review their applied policies and a redevelopment of the legislative frame work.

Paper presenter: Tigin Töre (Research Assistant / Assistant Professor, Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Turkey)& Seher Başlık , "A GIS Centered Database Model Proposalfor the Conservation of Build Heritage: DATCA Example"
The use of new techniques for data analysis is as important as gathering relevant data from conservation subjects. Last decade, uses of urban data modelling and spatial analyses increased with the progress of remote sensing and GIS techniques. Significant progress has already been achieved by monitoring and managing heritage. GIS provides three main attributes, storing, editing and querying spatial data. Data gathered from different sources and times, makes it possible to analyze spatial data within a time frame. However several issues have to be considered when working with cultural heritage. Data gathering process is a never ending effort. Types and amount of data can be gathered never ends. The means of documentation continuously change as the knowledge of researchers about the site increases. The information has to be updated continuously while different specialists suggest and demand new types of queries. Besides, the data management and formation does become an issue while the chunks of data accumulates and affects the query. The data structure has a detrimental effect on these issues. Therefore, in order to reach useful conclusions, relations between data and the aim of analyses should be taken in to consideration while forming the data base. This paper evaluates information packs collected in the field workshop in Datça Çe’meköy held by Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University Restoration Department with the cooperation of Datça administrative district office with in Mu’la province. Mu’la is one of the major destinations of tourism in Turkey with its cultural heritage and natural resources. Datça peninsula contains beautiful coasts and rich natural flora and cultural heritage starting from antiquity to Ottoman era. Therefore Datça peninsula is announced as natural and cultural heritage site by Turkish authorities. The inventories, and relevant data gathered within the workshop, inventories, plans, digital photographs, have been modelled to form a database to use in GIS and further analyses have been made to contribute to the sustainable management of the site.

Paper presenter: Yaser Abunnasr (PhD Candidate, University of Massachusetts, Amherst), “A Landscape Approach to the conservation of Urban Archaeological Sites: A Case Study in Down Town Beirut”
Many contemporary cities in the Middle East are located on ancient archaeological sites. Urban archaeology specializes in systematic and scientific excavation to reveal the many archaeological layers. As a result, urban archaeological sites are removed, reburied, incorporated within buildings or become sites of cultural heritage. While conservation might meet scientific objectives of protection and tourism, many open archaeological sites are not conserved and fall into decay due to economic duress, absence of policy, or lack of awareness. While this condition may be prevalent, unmanaged urban archaeological sites remain significant cultural resources. As overgrown, sterile and inactive open sites, they represent an opportunity to overlay them with urban open space to simultaneously conserve them as resources and to incorporate them into the urban landscape as places of daily use. In this paper, I propose landscape as an approach to the treatment and integration of a unmanaged and open urban archaeological site in Downtown Beirut. I identify three conceptualizations of landscape to transform the material culture of site into a meaningful sense of place. First, landscape as network and infrastructure to inform a city wide approach to integration. Second, landscape as palimpsest, to inform an understanding of archaeological layers (including the contemporary urban layer) of overlapping meanings. Third, the indeterminacy of landscape that informs the dynamic physical treatment of site and that prompts multiple interpretations of visible historic layers that reveal change over time. The application of the framework begins with an overview of current approaches to conservation, current definitions of landscape applicable to urban contexts, and precedent international case studies. I follow by presenting archaeological excavation as a process of formation of a typology of urban landscapes. By visually mapping the historic layers of the city and site (Bronze Age to the present) I locate morphological change, identify recurring patterns of use, and define persistent physical elements over time. I conclude with a summary of findings and discuss the transferability of this framework.

Paper presenter: Bahar Aksel & Inci Olgun (Research Assistants/ Drs. Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Faculty of Architecture, Department of City and Regional Planning, Turkey), “Developments / Transformation in a 900 Year Old City: MARDIN”
City of Mardin is located in the south east part of Anatolia / Turkey, very close to the border between Turkey and Syria. Mardin is an important settlement for centuries with its social structure, historical importance and urban morphology. Arabs, Turks, Syrians, Armenians and lots of different ethnic groups lived together in the same city and created a very peaceful lifestyle in a very tough geography. City is located on the slope skirts of a hill just at the side of the Mesopotamia and urban texture has a very strong identity with stone houses and narrow roads.
Throughout the centuries Mardin kept its importance. The main structure of the city did not changed so much, but in the street scale and architecture scale historical center is under a serious transformation. Old city of Mardin listed as a historical urban site and a new city built on the savanna answering the needs of modern life style. By this solution the pressure on the old pattern decreased and restrictions of master plan for old city helped conservation. However, this situation started a new period: even the historical market, main religious buildings and tourist attraction points are in old town, old city became neglected. Serious problem of poor infrastructure, concrete additional buildings, insufficient services and lack of renovation remained.
During this neglected period, local governments still underline the history of Mardin as a tourist and investment attraction. Since tourism start to vitalize the city, local governments start to locate extra funding for renovation and infrastructure projects. After that, submission to the UNESCO World Heritage list became a primary project. Today, tourism and its needs start to change the physical fabric. All these attempts of development hypothetically based on important historical background, strong identity and diverse social structure of Mardin. However, interventions made by different actors without sharing the needs and approaches; without noticing effects on the stakeholders; most important without an understanding of a common vision.
The main idea of this paper is to define the urban transformation / development steps of Mardin in the context of urban history, determine the other inputs to the process by other actors, and discuss a new approach for conservation and urban design in the context of revitalization for this important city.