World Congress for Middle Eastern Studies

Barcelona, July 19th – 24th 2010

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Great Powers in the Middle East: Until the Begining of the 20th Century (020) - Panel
 

· Date: MON 19, 2.30-4.30 pm

· Language: English / Français

· Description: Chair: Sinan Marufoglu (Assoc.Prof., Dr., Qatar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Humanities, Doha)

Paper presenter: Sinan Marufoglu (Assoc.Prof., Dr., Qatar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Humanities, Doha), “The Political and Religious Activities of England in Iraq before the WWI”
Iraq was a part of the Ottoman Empire from the first half of the 16th century until the
World War I. England’s economic interests in the Basrah (Arabian) Gulf and Iraq started by
the first half of the 17th century. England started to give more value to this region in the 19th
century because of the strategic location of Basrah Gulf and Iraq between England and her
colonies in the East, especially after the Industrial Revolution and the lost of her colonies in
America.
England supported the Ottoman State’s efforts to reestablish the central authority in
the Iraqi provinces during the first half of the 19th century because of its economic interests in
this region. However, by the second half of the 19th century, especially after the Ottoman
military campaign to Al-Ahsa Province in 1871, the political struggle started between
England and the Ottoman State in the Basrah Gulf.
England started to apply a colonial policy against the Ottoman territories after the
Berlin conference which held in 1878. England occupied Egypt in 1882 and started to support
the Arab nationalist movements in the Ottoman Arab provinces such as Syria and Iraq.
England beside her supports to the Arab nationalist movements in the Arab provinces,
started to apply a new policy in Iraq among the Shi’a population in Baghdad and Basrah
provinces especially after the second constitutional period in the Ottoman State. So the
question is; what was the new policy of England in Iraq before the World War I?
In this paper and according to the Ottoman documents we will try to discuss the
political and religious activities of England in Iraq before the WWI, especially among the
Sheikhs of the Shi’a tribes and religious leaders and the position of the local Ottoman
authorities from these activities.


Paper presenter: Mohammad Ali Chelongar (Assisstant Professor, Dr., University of Isfahan, Iran), “The Abolishment Process of the Capitulation in Iran 1906-1928”
The Constitutional Revolution in Iran (1906) had major effect on the Capitulation right in Iran. Iran's affair after the revolution led to awareness of the Iranian's and provided a basic situation for the establishment of the new justice department. This situation resulted in the capitulation right for all foreigners. Therefore, the majority of the Iranian governments endeavoured to the abolishment of the capitulation. However this demand was delayed until the Russian revolution in 1917 which provided a new situation in the Iranian and Russian relation. The new government in Russia accepted the abolishment of all of their privileges as well as the Tukmanchay treaty which was the main basic position for foreign advantage as well as the capitulation. Later the other phenomena that simplified this process, was the abolishment of capitulation in Turkey (1921). Finally, the last important element that stimulated this process was the new situation after the World War I, particularly after the treaty of Paris in 1921. This article tries to explain the situation of Iran and the Middle East region for the reformation of relations regarding major powers and also in the Justice department with especial concern to Iran.

Paper presenter: Sghaier Noureddine (Membre Academique, Universite de Sharjah, UAE), “Rivalités Européennes dans le Golfe Arabe au XVIIIe Siècle”
Cette recherche traitera le problème des rivalités européennes dans l’Océan Indien et le golfe arabe durant le XVIIIe siècle, pour l’établissement d’une stratégie européenne relative a` une nouvelle vision géopolitique et commerciale. Les forces européennes conduites par l’initiative Portugaise, au XVIe siècle ont enregistré de différentes périodes de domination, selon les stratégies choisies par les gouvernements et les volontés des responsables des forces armées. Ces stratégies ont connu d’innombrables rivalités dans lesquelles la piraterie et les corsaires ou bien les écumeurs ont joué un rôle prépondérant dans la détermination des positions des grandes puissances dans les espaces maritimes Indiens et Arabes. Français et Anglais se sont livrés à des affrontements sans merci, chose que l’histoire a revendiquée et enregistrée avec amertume à travers la narration de quelques épisodes d’horreur et l’évocation des noms de meneurs de pilages et de razzias, et que la mémoire des deux nations a souvent évoqué avec enthousiasme et fierté. Les Arabes, limitrophes de la péninsule, ont subi à leur tour d’épouvantables conséquences. Croisades ou impérialisme n’ont jamais fait la différence devant les duels acharnés pour une domination qui n’avait de valeurs que pour semer un épouvantable effroi enchanté et recherché et ceci pour accaparer certaines marchandises renommées telles que :les traites des nègres les épices , le café , le sucre et les tissus. S’agira-t-il d’un nouvel ordre international visant l’absolutisme stratégique et mercantilisme: Entrée d’Index Mots clés Piraterie ‘Qawasim - corsaires- écumeurs ‘ pirates ‘ rivalités ‘ conflits ‘ course - Espaces géographiques Océan Indien- Golfe arabe- Mer Arabe -Mer rouge - Péninsule arabique - Iles Maurice- Bander Abbas - Mascate.